undergraduate thesis
Health care of a person with autism spectre disorder

Jadranka Grubišić Čabo (2016)
University North
University centre Varaždin
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Metadata
TitleZdravstvena njega osoba s poremećajima iz spektra autizma
AuthorJadranka Grubišić Čabo
Mentor(s)Jurica Veronek (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Smatra se da su poremećaji iz autističnog spektra, najčešći razvojni poremećaji koji se pojavljuju u prve tri godine života i traju cijeli život. Zabrinjavajući su podaci koji govore o stopi pojavnosti autizma od 1 na 150 rođene djece, te podatak da se svakih 21 minutu u svijetu rodi dijete kod kojeg će biti dijagnosticiran neki od poremećaja iz autističnog spektra. Prvi autori koji su opisali autistične poremećaje, Asperger i Kanner, pretpostavili su da su ti poremećaji urođeni, odnosno nastali u najranijoj dječjoj dobi. Iako je prošlo 60 godina od prvog opisa autizma (Leo Kanner), osnovna obilježja njegova opisa nisu se značajno mijenjala. U zadnja dva desetljeća, ponajprije zbog razvoja neuroznanosti, neuropsihologije, genetike i specijalne edukacije, kao i zbog sve više dostupnih iskaza visokofunkcionirajućih osoba s autizmom, spoznaje na ovom području su sve šire. Istraživanja poremećaja autističnog spektra temelje se na multidisciplinarnim područjima genetike, biokemije, psihologije, edukacijske rehabilitacije (specijalne pedagogije), a prevencija, rano otkrivanje i tretman velik su izazov za stručnjake i istraživače. Danas se autistični poremećaji smatraju pervazivnim razvojnim poremećajima, koji su u desetoj reviziji Međunarodne klasifikacije psihičkih poremećaja (MKB-10), koju je izdala Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija, definirani na sljedeći način: „Skupina poremećaja koje obilježavaju kvalitativne nenormalnosti uzajamne interakcije i obrazaca komunikacije kao i ograničen, stereotipan, ponavljajući repertoar interesa i aktivnosti. Ove kvalitativne nenormalnosti su osnovno funkcionalno obilježje oboljele osobe, ali se razlikuju u izraženosti. U najvećem broju slučajeva prisutan je od najranijeg djetinjstva osebujan razvoj. S malobrojnim iznimkama nenormalnosti su od pete godine života manifestne. Najčešće su prisutni određeni opći kognitivni deficiti, no poremećaji su definirani ponašanjem koje ne odgovara razini inteligencije osobe, bez obzira na to je li ona odgovarajuća za određenu dob.― Cilj zdravstvene njege osoba s poremećajem autističnog spektra je pomoći obitelji da prepozna najranije simptome, educirati obitelj o poremećaju te pomoći oboljeloj osobi da se što lakše prilagodi zajednici i bude u mogućnosti ispunjavati samostalno osnovne životne potrebe koliko god osobi njeno stanje to dopušta. Kontinuirani tretman i rehabilitacija od najranije dobi mogu donekle zaustaviti negativne procese i omogućiti uspješnu socijalizaciju osoba s autizmom.
Keywordsautism spectre disorder autism disorders children nurse
Parallel title (English)Health care of a person with autism spectre disorder
Committee MembersMirjana Kolarek Karakaš (committee chairperson)
Jurica Veronek (committee member)
Vesna Sertić (committee member)
GranterUniversity North
Lower level organizational unitsUniversity centre Varaždin
Department of Biomedical Sciences
PlaceKoprivnica
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE
Clinical Medical Sciences
Nursing
Study programme typeprofessional
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeNursing
Academic title abbreviationbacc. med. techn.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-10-10
Parallel abstract (English)
Autism spectre disorder, or autism, are most common development disorders which originate in first three years of life and last for a lifetime. Researchs show that on 150 born children, 1 will have autism, and a child with autism spectre disorder is born somewhere in the world every 21 minutes. First authors who described autism, Asperger and Kanner, both concluded that those are innate disorders, which means they originate in early childhood. Allthough it's been 60 years since Leo Kanner first described autism, essential features haven't changed much. In the last two decades, primarily due to the development of neuroscience, neuropsychology, genetics and special education, as well as increasing the available testimonies of highly-functioning people with autism, the knowledge in this area is spreading. Researchs of Autism spectrum disorders are based on the multidisciplinary fields of genetics, biochemistry, psychology, educational rehabilitation (special pedagogy), and prevention, early detection and treatment are a major challenge for professionals and researchers. Today, autistic disorders are considered pervasive developmental disorders, which are in the tenth revision of the International Classification of mental disorders (ICD-10), issued by the World Health Organization, defined as follows: "A group of disorders characterized by qualitative abnormalities in reciprocal interactions and patterns in communication and restricted, stereotyped, repetitive repertoire of interests and activities. These qualitative abnormalities are the basic functional characteristic of the person, but vary in severity. In most cases peculiar development is present from infancy. With few exceptions, abnormalities are manifested from the age of five. Most often some general cognitive deficits are present, but disorders are defined by behavior that does not match the level of intelligence of people, regardless of whether it is appropriate for a certain age. "(ICD-10, p. 265). The goal of the health care of people with autism spectrum disorders is to help families recognize early symptoms, to educate the family about the disorder and help the ill person to more easily adjust to the community and being able to meet its own basic needs as long as the person's condition allows it. Continuous treatment and rehabilitation from the early age can somewhat stop the negative trends and enable successful socialization of people with autism.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)poremećaji autističnog spektra autizam poremećaji djeca medicinska sestra
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:122:444917
CommitterJasna Kosić