undergraduate thesis
Akutni poremećaji prehrane u djece

Jana Sršan (2015)
University North
University centre Varaždin
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Metadata
TitleAkutni poremećaji prehrane u djece
AuthorJana Sršan
Mentor(s)Štefanija Munivrana (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Akutni poremećaji prehrane predstavljaju svakodnevni problem u pedijatrijskoj praksi. U akutne poremećaje prehrane ubrajamo akutni proljev, povraćanje i dehidraciju. Proljev je pojava prekomjernog gubitka vode i elektrolita putem stolice. Proljev je simptom koji bolesnik opisuje kao prevelik broj stolica ili kao stolice smanjene gustoće ili povećanog volumena. Obično su te promjene kombinirane. Povraćanje je obilnije ispražnjavanje želuca ili nižih dijelova probavnog sustava. Uz učestali proljev i povraćanje nastupa dehidracija. Dehidracija je najvažniji poremećaj prometa vode u organizmu – češća je u dojenačkoj dobi nego bilo kada kasnije u životu. Dehidracija je stanje kada u organizmu dolazi do smanjenog volumena ekstracelularnog prostora. Razlikujemo blagu, umjerenu i tešku dehidraciju, te izonatremijsku, hipernatremijsku i hiponetramijsku dehidraciju. Najčešći uzročnici crijevnih zaraznih bolesti su bakterije (poglavito salmonele i šigele, te Campylobacter jejuni i Yersinia enterocolitica) ili njihovi toksini (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum), ali i virusi (najvažniji su rotavirusi). Uzročnici također mogu biti paraziti i gljivice. Akutni poremećaj prehrane može uzrokovati i emocionalni stres, crijevne infekcije, preosjetljivost na hranu i neki lijekovi (željezo, antibiotici). Izvor zaraze može biti druga osoba (kliconoša), zaražena životinja ili hrana. Dijagnoza se postavlja na temelju anamneze, odnosno u slučaju djece na temelju heteroanamneze - trebalo bi zabilježiti trajanje proljeva, pojavljuje li se abdominalna bol i koliko traje, da li je uz proljev prisutno povraćanje i povišena tjelesna temperatura, postoje li promjene u karakteristikama stolice. Npr. primjese u stolici, promjena boje ili konzistencije. Za dijagnostiku bolesti važan je fizikalni pregled. Najvažnije je procijeniti stanje hidracije organizma. Važno je obaviti kompletni pregled djeteta koji obavezno uključuje pregled abdomena te digitorektalni pregled. Provode se laboratorijske pretrage krvi, stolice i urina, procjena deficita tekućine su važni podaci za definiranje dijagnoze i stupnja dehidracije. Proljevi i povraćanje često dovode do većeg gubitka vode i elektrolita, a time i do poremećaja acidobazne ravnoteže u organizmu. Zbog toga svako dijete s proljevom, osim anamneze o početku, broju i izgledu stolica, treba detaljno pregledavati. Obratiti pažnju na stupanj dehidracije, znakove poremećene acidobazne ravnoteže i posebno znakove hipovolemičnog šoka. Poznavanje kliničkih znakova pomoći će medicinskoj sestri u patronaži da obavi trijažu. Djeca s težom kliničkom slikom obavezno uputiti liječniku na pregled. Glavne mjere liječenja su dijetalna prehrana i rehidracija. Plan liječenja se odabire na temelju dobivenih podataka: ako nema dehidracije, ako postoji blaga ili teža dehidracija bez prijetećeg hipovolemičnog šoka, ili ako postoji teška dehidracija i prijeti ili se već razvio hipovolemični šok.
Keywordsacute disorders nutrition diarrhea vomiting dehydration rehydration diagnosis treatment
Committee MembersNatalija Uršulin-Trstenjak
Štefanija Munivrana
Melita Sajko
GranterUniversity North
Lower level organizational unitsUniversity centre Varaždin
Department of Biomedical Sciences
PlaceKoprivnica
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOMEDICINE AND HEALTHCARE
Clinical Medical Sciences
Pediatrics
Study programme typeprofessional
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeNursing
Academic title abbreviationbacc. med. techn.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2015-10-13
Parallel abstract (English)
Acute eating disorders are a daily problem in pediatric practice. In acute eating disorders we include acute diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. Diarrhea is a phenomenon of excessive loss of water and electrolytes through feces . Diarrhea is a symptom that the patient described as too much feces reduced density and increased volume. Usually these changes are combined. Vomiting is abundant gastric emptying, or the lower intestinal tract. With frequent diarrhea and vomiting, performs dehydration. Dehydration is the most important traffic disruption in the body of water - is more common in infancy than at any time in later life. Dehydration is a condition in which the body comes to a reduced volume of extracellular space. We distinguish between mild, moderate and severe dehydration, and isonatremic, hypernatremic and hyponetramic dehydration. The most common causes of intestinal infectious diseases (mainly Salmonella and Shigella, and Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica) or their toxins (Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum) and viruses (rotavirus is the most important). The causes may be parasites, and fungi. Acute eating disorder can be caused by emotional stress, intestinal infections, hypersensitivity to food, and some medications (iron, antibiotics). The source of infection may be another person (carriers), infected animals or food. Diagnosis is based on anamnesis, or in the case of children under heteroanamnesis - it should be noted the duration of diarrhea, appearance of the abdominal pain and how long it takes, whether it is with diarrhea and vomiting present fever , if there are any changes in the characteristics of feces. In the diagnosis of disease is an important physical examination. The most important thing is to assess the state of hydration of the body. It is important to do a complete overview of the child which must include examination of the abdomen, digital rectal examination. Conducted laboratory tests of blood, feces and urine, fluid deficit estimate the important data for the definition of the diagnosis and the degree of dehydration. Diarrhea and vomiting often lead to make greater loss of water and electrolytes and disorders of acid-base balance in the body. Therefore, every child with diarrhea, in addition of a anamnesis of the beginning, the number and appearance of the feces, should look through. Pay attention to the degree of dehydration, signs of disturbed acid-base balance and special signs hypovolemic shock. Knowledge of clinical signs will help the nurse in patronage to perform triage. Children with more severe necessarily refer to the doctor for review. The main measures of treatment are diet and rehydration. A treatment plan is selected on the basis of the data obtained: if there is no dehydration, if there is mild or severe dehydration without threatening hypovolemic shock, or if there is severe dehydration and is threatening or has already developed hypovolemic shock.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)akutni poremećaji prehrana proljev povraćanje dehidracija rehidracija dijagnoza liječenje
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:122:555821
CommitterJasna Kosić